Omran al-Zoubi made the remarks in a television interview broadcast on Monday.
He advised Riyadh to halt its policy of sponsoring terrorism against Syria and other regional countries, such as Iraq, Lebanon, and Algeria.
Zoubi particularly criticized the Saudi foreign minister, saying Saud al-Faisal has always driven Saudi policy toward failure.
He also branded Faisal as “the political side of the terrorism practiced by the kingdom”.
“Saud al-Faisal has always driven the Saudi policy toward failure and into a dead end and the Saudi diplomacy will face unmatched disappointment,” the Syrian minister added.
His comments came after a meeting between Faisal and his US counterpart John Kerry on Monday.
During the meeting, the Saudi official reportedly lamented the international community’s inaction on the Syrian crisis, particularly the US decision not to intervene militarily.
Syria has long accused Saudi Arabia of being one of the main regional sponsors of the foreign-backed militants.
On Monday, Zoubi said the Syrian government would not participate in the forthcoming Geneva 2 peace conference if the aim were for President Bashar al-Assad to relinquish power.
“We will not go to Geneva to hand over power as desired by (Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud) al-Faisal and certain opponents abroad,” Zoubi said.
Syria has been gripped by deadly unrest since 2011. According to reports, the Western powers and their regional allies — especially Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey — are supporting the militants operating inside Syria.
According to the UN, more than 100,000 people have been killed and a total of 7.8 million others displaced due to the violence.