Turkey and the United Arab Emirates have been embroiled in years of hostility over issues including the future of Libya, Ankara’s support for political Islam after the Arab Spring and its close ties to the UAE’s regional rival Qatar.
Strategic and economic factors are now behind efforts to open a new chapter in relations, according to Amjad Ahmad, a senior fellow at the Atlantic Council’s EmpowerME Initiative at the Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East, and Defne Aslan, a senior director at the Atlantic Council.
“The pandemic was a wake-up call for the region to reduce tensions, accelerate cooperation, and increase economic integration for mutual benefit,” Ahmad and Aslan said on the Atlantic Council’s website on Monday.
“Turkey will hold elections in 2023, so president Erdoğan wants to make tangible progress on economic issues before then and also point to his progress in improving international relations, since Turkey needs foreign investments to grow and create employment,” the analysts said.
And “Turkey fits nicely into the UAE’s diversification goals as one of the largest regional markets, with a large, educated population and strategic location,” they said.
A full reproduction of the article follows below:
In the decade since the Arab Spring, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have been locked in a rivalry, taking diverging positions on Egypt, Libya, and Qatar, to name just a few issues. The political tension greatly impacted their economic ties and reduced investment activity. However, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s Feb.14 visit to the UAE—during which the two countries signed thirteen agreements in defence, trade, technology, agriculture, and other sectors—indicates that rapprochement is well underway. Strategic and economic factors are behind this shift and many benefits can come from closer ties.
From a strategic perspective, the transition in U.S. policy in the Middle East to a more practical, less assertive approach with less ambitious objectives has impacted Turkish-UAE relations. The U.S. policy shift isn’t new and has played out in various degrees in consecutive administrations, culminating in the chaotic withdrawal from Afghanistan in August 2021. The intent is to focus on stability—as opposed to democracy promotion—because the United States wants and needs to focus on other issues, such as China, Russia, and domestic challenges like the economy. The United States also supports improving Turkish-UAE relations, which only helps incentivise both sides.
As for the UAE, part of its strategic calculation is a desire to expand alliances and not rely solely on the United States. Thus, we are seeing more attempts by the UAE and other Middle East governments to promote regional diplomacy over conflict and increase trade and economic ties to bolster the region’s position as a whole vis-à-vis large players like China.
Similarly, over the past year, Turkey has pursued broad diplomatic efforts to normalise its relations with countries around the region—including Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Armenia, and the UAE—in response to the changing geopolitical landscape. So far, efforts with the UAE have progressed the furthest, with reciprocal head of state visits to both capitals.
Domestic issues are also a salient force behind the warming of Turkish-UAE relations. The pandemic created and exposed economic issues that must be addressed and both countries understandably want to focus inward to resolve these.
Turkey’s recent economic issues—including the precipitous drop of the Turkish lira’s value—stem from the erratic economic policy shift in the country and have been exacerbated by global inflation and the prospect of rate increases in the United States. Unemployment is also a challenge in Turkey, which stands at 11.2 percent. However, the recently released economic growth numbers for 2021, if sustainable, raises hopes that the Turkish economy will start creating employment again. On the other hand, the recent Ukraine-Russia conflict is expected to create a new shadow on the Turkish economy by decreasing its tourism revenue. Turkey will hold elections in 2023, so President Erdoğan wants to make tangible progress on economic issues before then and also point to his progress in improving international relations, since Turkey needs foreign investments to grow and create employment.
The UAE recognised long ago that diversification is vital for its long-term survival, given the decline in oil prices and resources. For this reason, the UAE has enacted dynamic policies that have attracted companies and entrepreneurs to prepare for a post-oil economic future, where the most valuable asset is human talent driving innovation and technology. During the pandemic, the country accelerated reforms to maintain its regional hub and fend off a resurgent Saudi Arabia. Turkey fits nicely into the UAE’s diversification goals as one of the largest regional markets, with a large, educated population and strategic location.
Turkey and the UAE shared significant economic ties in the past two decades. Despite political conflicts over disagreements in Egypt and Libya (to name a few), the UAE was an investor in Turkey and the country benefited from the UAE’s rise as a regional hub, with Turkish companies participating in construction, real estate, hospitality, and logistics.
In fact, the Gulf region was the most dependable and aggressive investor in Turkey over the last few decades because of the opportunities in the financial sector, technology sector, industrial sector, and construction and real estate sectors. In terms of foreign direct investment (FDI), the Gulf represents 7 percent of Turkey’s FDI today. In comparison, the United States—a much larger economy—represents a similar amount: 8 percent of Turkey’s FDI. While the political disagreements impacted FDI, the overall impact was not severe, as Qatar increased its investments in Turkey during this period, somewhat blunting the decline from the UAE. The UAE’s recent investments have given the green light to private sector companies eager to reengage in Turkey’s vast economy.
The pandemic was a wake-up call for the region to reduce tensions, accelerate cooperation, and increase economic integration for mutual benefit. Countries grappling with increasing debt, inflation, rising interest rates, currency volatility, broken supply chains, and global uncertainty— given great power conflict between the United States and China—are looking inward to strengthen their economic resilience and growth.
This rapprochement can be a catalyst for positive change and may lead to interesting spill over benefits, namely:
1. The renewed engagement between Turkey and the UAE may set the stage for further economic cooperation across the region. Turkey and the UAE should work to bring large economies, such as Egypt and Saudi Arabia, into regional economic integration efforts. By doing so, the countries create a massive bloc to counter China’s increased activity in the region and provide trade and economic benefits to the region as a whole.
2. Now that official relations between Turkey and the UAE are improving, the private sector needs to reengage in dialogue to ensure that they can take advantage of the political stability that will come out of these agreements. There is pent-up demand to increase investment and business activity on both sides that should be unleashed given this new détente.
3. Saudi Arabia’s economic awakening and its planned transition in the next decade—through its Vision 2030 framework—represents tremendous opportunity for Turkish construction, real estate, and tourism firms. Turkey’s size and rich talent pool of leadership, management, and skilled workers would be a boon for the Gulf states.
4. The renewed support and investment from the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) may help stabilize the Turkish lira, given that Turkey implements the right economic policies. GCC support may influence positive policy changes that will help to increase Turkey’s FDI.
(The original production of this article can be found here.)